【同义词辨析】 2020-10-26 伪誓似乎招致跳水克制(5小组一起记）
perjure: in general as distinct from technical legal use, implies making a liar of oneself whether under oath or not: refused to ~ himself on anyone's behalf. （oath宣誓，保证在法庭说真话a sworn declaration, especially that one will tell the truth in a court，如is she prepared to give evidence on/under oath她愿意宣誓作证吗? 如the judge reminded the witness that he was still under oath法官提醒证人他是宣誓作证 还表示一般的宣誓，如they swore an oath of loyalty to the country他们宣誓要报效国家，swear比较常用，等于oath）
forswear: implies a violation of one's oath, promise, or vow or sometimes of something , such as one's principles or beliefs, that is as sacred as an oath: ~ the laws of her country in order to save the life of her child. vow=oath，vow尤指宗教的誓，誓言，誓约
perjure伪证、违背誓言: 作法律术语表示作伪证，此外可泛指违背誓言，无论是否宣誓，forswear发誓放弃: 指发誓放弃誓言，或同誓言一样神圣的原则信念
2）伪誓的意思是违背誓言mean to violate one's oath or make a false swearer of oneself.
seem: is likely to suggest an opinion based on subjective impressions and personal reaction: ~ed to be strong and healthy. reaction反应，这里指感觉feelings
look: implies an opinion based on general visual impression: ~ed exactly like this picture.
appear: may convey the same implications as look but often it suggests an obviously distorted impression: an explanation that ~ed to be true. distort使失真使变形
seem似乎: 指根据个人主观感觉印象而形成某种观点，look看似: 指基于视觉印象，appear看似: 同上，但常指显然错误的(视觉)印象
2）似乎的意思是给人印象，但未必真实mean to give the impression of being as stated without necessarily being so in fact. "似"是形声字，从人以声。本义1、 "像，相像"，如相似类似骄阳似火如胶似漆 引申为2、不确定、好像，如似乎疑似看似似曾相识。似字的构造含义不明
incur: usually implies responsibility for the acts that bring about what is incurred: a couple who adopts a child ~s a great responsibility. 如incur expenses/debt/responsibility招致开销/债务/责任
contract: more strongly implies effective acquisition but often no definite responsibility for the act of acquiring; it also suggests a meeting between two things that permits transmission of something from one to the other: ~ a disease. 如he contracted a debt of $3,300负债3300美元，如evil habits are easy to contract染恶习容易
catch: implies the acquiring of infection and in its broader use implies an acquiring through personal contact or association: ~ their interest.
incur招致: 常指自身对此负有责任，contract传染沾染: 仅表示带来，不强调责任，catch传染、吸引: 指被传染，或吸引他人的兴趣或注意力
2）招致的意思是带来不想要的mean to bring something, usually unwanted, upon oneself.
plunge: stresses the force of the movement and may imply entry into any penetrable substance or into a state or condition in which one is overwhelmed or immersed: he ~d eagerly into the new course of studies. overwhelm压倒immerse淹没 习语to take the plunge长期考虑后作决定做某事to do something after thinking about it for a long time，如yesterday we finally took the plunge and bought a new car昨天我们最终下了决心买了辆新车
dive: suggests intent and may imply more deliberateness and more skill than plunge: pilots trained to ~, climb, and bank in unison.
pitch: is likely to stress lack of all intent or design: she caught her heel in a crack and ~ed to the ground; or may imply the alternate forward and backward plunging of a ship or a spaceship: struggled to control the capsule as it ~ed and yawed.
plunge跳水暴跌: 指用力跳入，dive跳水潜水: 更具有目的和技巧，pitch下坠: 指因为失控而下坠，或一前一后下坠
2）跳水的意思是跳入水里mean to throw oneself or to throw or thrust something forward and downward into or as if into deep water.
refrain: is likely to suggest the checking of a passing impulse: ~ from laughter in church. check克制或阻碍行为行动to restrain or impede an activity or progress。 restrain克制to hold back from acting or from going to extremes避免做某事，避免走极端，如restrained themselves from trading insults保持克制避免互相辱骂 这里check和restrain同义
abstain: usually implies deliberate renunciation or self-denial on principle and often permanency of intent: a vegetarian who ~s from all meat.
forbear: usually implies self-restraint rather than self-denial, be it from patience, charity, or clemency or from discretion or stoicism: taught himself to ~ such expressions of anger. 教自己克制住自己，不这样表达愤怒，形容词forbearing表示能够容忍他人的，如a forbearing teacher宽容的老师 stoicism对痛苦默默承受，坚忍
refrain克制冲动: 指克制一时冲动，abstain放弃戒除: 指为了原则目标而放弃享受、坚韧克己，forbear克制: 指自我克制，而非放弃享受
2）克制的意思是主动不做某事或不沉溺于某事mean to keep oneself voluntarily from doing or indulging in something.