【同义词辨析】 2020-10-20 宽深高大真(5小组一起记)

broad: is preferred when full horizontal extent is considered: ~ shoulders.     如broad mind宽广胸怀,Plato柏拉图的意思是broad shoulders宽肩

wide: is more common when units of measurement are mentioned: rugs eight feet ~; or applied to unfilled space between limits: a ~ doorway.   (wide由本义间距宽引申出范围大程度大,如known far and wide远近闻名,wide support/acceptance广泛支持/接受,wide awake完全清醒)      一条宽路可以用broad road表示路自身宽,也可以用wide road指路的两边间距

deep: may indicate horizontal extent away from the observer or from a front or peripheral point: a ~ cupboard; ~ woods.    橱柜  深林      ""字原本上边是穴字头,下边是火而非木,表示"手持火把在洞穴探索",指从洞穴外边到里边的距离远

broad宽: 指自身宽,wide宽: 指间距宽,deep深: 指离观测者远,或离正面外围

记忆方法: 1)练习一下

         2)的意思是有水平宽度mean having horizontal extent.        extend延伸,extent范围、程度

deep: is the more general term, stressing the fact rather than the degree of extension downward from a surface or sometimes backward or inward from a front or outer part: a ~ river; when applied to persons or mental processes, it implies the presence of or need for great intellectual activity or emotional conviction: felt ~ concern for his brother's safety.     (1、除了位置、思维、情感,deep还可形容声音、颜色、呼吸等  2、deep和deeply都可以作副词,deep指位置深,deeply指程度深,参见第3组中high和highly作副词时的区别的注释)     (degree可以表示1、温度中的一度 2、角度中的一度 3、学位,如a doctor's degree博士学位,但它最重要的意思是程度an amount or level that can be compared to another amount or level相比较而言的数量或水平,如a great degree of difficulty/success/skill很大程度的困难/成功/技巧,to some degree一定程度上,如to what degree is she interested她有感兴趣,如first-degree murder一谋杀。因为一般情况下deep表示比一般深,即程度上深,因此原文中"deep仅强调事实不强调程度"的说法未采用)

profound: connotes exceedingly great depth: the ~ depths of the sea; and may imply the need or presence of  thoroughness: a ~ thinker.   又如a profound insight/thinker/question/sense of loss/change/silence深刻的见解/学识渊博的思想家/深入的问题/深切的丧失感/深刻的变化/深深(完全)的沉默=absolute  thorough彻底全面including every possible part or detail, 如a thorough investigation彻底调查,如a thorough understanding of the rules全面理解规则,例句中through表示思想渊博)

abysmal: carries the idea of abyss and implies fathomless distance downward, backward, or inward: on the brink of the ~ precipice; or often of measureless degree, especially with words denoting a lack of something: ~ ignorance.  来自abyss深渊,常表示极差,如abysmal living conditions生活条件极差her grades were abysmal成绩极差

deep深: 泛指向下距离远(或向内向后),用于人时表示思维活动多情感反应强,profound深渊博: 表示特别深,还可表示知识渊博,abysmal深不可测、极差: 像深渊一样不可测量,常表示缺乏或恶劣

记忆方法: 1)练习一下

         2)的意思是有向下深度mean having great extension downward or inward.

high: implies marked extension upward and is applied chiefly to things which rise from a base or foundation: a ~ hill; or are placed at a conspicuous height above a lower level: a ~ ceiling.   (high和highly都可以作副词,区别是high位置高located far above the ground,或由此引申的价格、地位、志向高,如fly high高飞she aims high志向he lives high社会地位buy low and sell high低买high-paid work薪工作; highly程度高to a great degree,如highly respected/successful/concerned/sensitive高度尊敬/成功/关注/敏感,如highly-paid work薪工作,等于high-paid work,如he speaks highly of you他对你高度赞扬)   marked=very noticeable明显的,如marked changes变化明显,his friendliness is in marked contrast to his usual behavior他的友好态度与之前对比明显)

tall: applies to what grows or rises high by comparison with others of its kind and usually implies relative narrowness: a ~ thin man.     high表示高,但tall仅表示高于同类平均,如a tall tree/building/man树/楼/人,表示人的身高只能用tall,如she is five feet tall身高五尺,表示建筑高可以用tall也可以用high,如the building is six stories tall(=high)楼六层

lofty: suggests great or imposing altitude: ~ mountain peaks.    imposing雄伟壮观的,令人印象深刻的implies great size and dignity and stresses impressiveness,如large, imposing buildings line the avenue道路两旁是雄伟壮观的大楼,如an imposing man仪表堂堂的男人)       altitude高度是指相对于海平面的高度

high高: 指很明显的高度,既可指自身高,也可指所处的位置高,tall高: 指相较同类平均高,lofty高耸: 表示雄伟壮观的高度

记忆方法: 1)练习一下

         2)的意思是有向上高度mean above the average in height.

large: may be preferred when dimensions or extent or capacity or quantity or amount are being considered: a ~ meal; or when breadth, comprehensiveness, or generosity are stressed: tried to respond to some ~ issues.    quantityamount都表示数量,基本可以互换,如a large/small quantity of food[amount]大量食物,不同之处是quantity是事物的基本属性,就像种类、颜色等是基本属性一样,amount有相加得到总量的含义。两个词一般都用于不可数名词,可数名词的数目用number)     dimension维度,是可以测量的物理量,3维3D长宽高描述物体尺寸4维4D长宽高时间描述物体运动    

big: emphasizes bulk or mass or weight or volume: a ~ book; or impressiveness or importance: yearned mainly to be a ~ man on campus.    (big用途广,如big success/problem/word/fan/day/brother/gun/picture/deal巨大成功/严重问题/词/热情支持者/日子(如结婚日)/哥,指政府部门/重要人物/体/重要的事,big-headed自的,big-hearted慷慨善良的,talk big说话让人印象深刻,但言不副实)

great: may sometimes imply physical magnitude, usually with connotations of wonder, surprise, or awe: the ~ canyon cut by the Colorado River; but it more often implies eminence, distinction, or excellence: possessed a very ~ talent.

large大的: 用于形容尺寸范围容积数量,强调宽广博大,big大的: 用于形容块头质量重量体积,强调壮观重要,great伟大的: 指大到令人赞叹惊讶敬畏的,多表示杰出独特卓越

记忆方法: 1)练习一下

         2)的意思是体量超过平均mean above average in magnitude, especially physical magnitude.  (magnitude 1、尺寸 2、规模 3、重要性refers to the size, extent, or importance of something,如magnitude of pulse脉冲幅度, the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 had a magnitude of 8.3 1906年旧金山地震的震为8.3, 如an order of magnitude一个数量级10倍,如we did not realize the magnitude of the problem没有意识到问题的重要性。这里magnitude表示尺寸或规模)     physical有2个意思 1身体的 2物质的物理的applies to what can be perceived, measured, and calculated可以感知测量计算的,如physical world物质世界physical quantity物理量     超过平均可以用above average(如本组)也可以用above the average(如上一组high)  

real: is likely to stress genuineness and especially correspondence between appearance and essense: a ~ diamond.     genuine有2个意思,都表示:1不造假的,2真诚的,在2017-06-23 真正authentic-bona fide)   real lovereal feelingreal life/world真实生活/世界real time时表示在接受、处理数据的同时显示处理结果(的计算机系统), realism现实主义是表现人在真实生活中的生活状态的艺术门类

actual: stresses the fact of existence or fidelity to the existent as opposed to the nonexistent, abstract, or hypothetical: the ~ tests of this missle have not yet been made.

true: can stress conformity to the real especially as a model or standard: the ladybug is not a ~ bug but a beetle; or conformity to the pertinent facts that are known or knowable: the ~ verson of events.        (例如,什么是真正的爱国者,可能存在一个标准或模范,如果某人符合这个标准或模范,就说这个人是true patriot真正的爱国者,除此以外true和real没有区别)

real真的: 强调不造,表里一致,actual实际的: 强调实际存在或发生,而虚构抽象假设的,true真正的真的: 指符合真正的标准模范,或表示符合事实

记忆方法: 1)练习一下

         2)的意思是符合事实mean corresponding to known facts.        的本义是1、"原样的,本样的",如返朴归;引申为2、"符合客观事实",和"假、伪"相对,如心千万确。道家将存养本性或修真得道的人称为真人。真的构型和本义不详,有人说像一个人得道升天,也有人说像是用火烤龟甲占卜真伪。但含义明确:1、(原义)原样本样的 2、(引申义) 符合客观事实      ""是会意字,从宀从贯,繁体是"",贝表示财物,表示将财物串起来,实表示内部"有物质物品",如体。有1个引申义: "有行动",验。另外把"符合客观情况"比喻为,如话真实实