【同义词辨析】 2020-10-15 真实truth-verisimilitude
truth: may apply to an ideal abstraction that conforms to a universal or generalized reality or quality of statements, acts, or feelings that adhere to reality and avoid error or falsehood: swore to the ~ of the statement he had made. （truth有3个意思 1、事实the real facts about something; the things that are true实际发生的事情，如are you telling the truth你说的是事实么？如you have to face the simple/hard truth that we failed你必须面对简单/难以接受的事实，我们失败了，do you swear to tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth你愿意宣誓说出全部事实并只说事实么？如to tell you the truth=truth be told告诉你事实，实话实说 2、真实、符合事实the quality or state of being true指与事实相符合的性质或状态, 如there is no truth in anything she says她说的毫无事实(或毫不真实)，如she said she was feeling fine but in truth she was very ill她说感觉良好，但事实上患有重病 3、真理statement or idea that is true or accepted as true，如basic/universal truths about human nature人性的基本/普遍真理，如"although truth and justice may be the most powerful impulses to show moral courage, there are others. compassion is one of these尽管真理和正义是表现道德勇气的最强有力的推动力，但还有其他，同情就是其中之一）
veracity: implies rigid and unfailing adherence to, observance of, or respect for truth: a politician not known for his ~. 三个介词不相同 （又如they questioned the veracity of her story/statement他们质疑她所述事情/声明的真实性，如he was shocked to find his veracity questioned发现自己的诚信受到了质疑，他很震惊，如例句不讲诚信的政客）
verity: designates the quality of a state or thing that is exactly what it purports to be or accords completely with the facts: test the ~ of his remarks; or refers to things felt to be of lasting, ultimate, or transcedent truth: a teacher still believing in the old ~ies of school pride and loyalty. 如拉丁短语in vino veritas酒后吐真言，如some verities of human nature人性中一些真实的东西，如the eternal verities of life生命永恒的真理，都和truth相同
verisimilitude: implies the quality of an artistic or literary representation that causes one to accept it as true to life or to human experience: a novel about contemporary marriage that was praised for its ~. 如to add verisimilitude, the stage is covered with sand for the desert scenes为了增加真实感，舞台上铺满了沙子作为沙漠的场景
truth真实真理: 指符合具体事实的性质或状态(注释义项2，表示一种性质或状态)，或指符合普遍事实的真理(注释义项3)，veracity真实诚信: 指严格一贯遵从遵守尊重事实，verity真实真理: 同truth，verisimilitude真实: 指文学艺术作品有真实感，符合生活体验
记忆方法: 1）首字母TVVV3个V想成3个very T想成True<==真实 "真"的本义是1、"原样的、本样的"，如返朴归真写真传真失真；引申为2、"符合客观事实"，和"假伪"相对，如真实真事真心千真万确 2、道家将存养本性或修真得道的人称为真人。真的构型和本义的关系还不明确，有人说像一个人得道升天，也有人说像是用火烤龟甲占卜真伪，但其含义明确 "实"是会意字，从宀从贯，繁体写作"實"，贝表示财物，贯表示"将财物串起来"，二者合起来表示本义: 内部"有物品"，如实心实业实体；引申为1、"有行动"，如实施实行实干实事实验 2、将"符合客观情况"比喻为实，如实情实话诚实老实实在真实
3）真实的意思是符合事实避免歪曲mean the quality of keeping close to fact or reality and avoiding distortion or misrepresentation.